This posting explains about British patent numbers, both old and new. At present there are two kinds of numbers. At the end there may be a check digit preceded by a fullstop but this can be ignored. Zeroes are added if necessary so that there are five digits within the numerical sequence. Applications can be refiled within 12 months to make amendments in which case a fresh number is given. Either it is an amendment to the original and keeps the original application number as well, or else the applicant is submitting fresh material and is starting from scratch. In this case, was amended by but kept the original number. The second, published number is allocated when publication occurs. Details of the invention are confidential before then. In this case, it became GB A.

How to Identify Markings on Wagner Cast Iron

History[ edit ] BT’s origins date back to the establishment of the first telecommunications companies in Britain. Among them was the first commercial telegraph service , the Electric Telegraph Company , established in As these companies amalgamated and were taken over or collapsed, the remaining companies were transferred to state control under the Post Office in These companies were merged and rebranded as British Telecom.

Fancy a funny read by the author: Ena Wilf & The One-Armed Machinist. Alex’s stories are now available to keep.C lick on the picture for more information.. Alex Askaroff. Most of us know the name Singer but few are aware of his amazing life story, his rags to riches journey from a little runaway to one of the richest men of his age.

Radiant Sun Standards for precious metals in Switzerland originated in Geneva in the 15th century, the first recorded regulation concerning the fineness and marking of silver was enacted by Bishop John of Brogny in the year To begin with the standards and marking were controlled by the local Guilds. These assay offices were established by law, superseding the medieval Guild system of regulation. These hallmarks were used for plate, vessels and candlesticks etc.

They were not used on watch cases, I don’t think there was any Swiss national legal control over the fineness of gold or silver used in watch cases until the Precious Metals Control Act of Until Swiss gold watches were usually stamped with the gold fineness, usually 14 carats, a popular standard on the continent, and silver watches were often simply marked “Fine Silver” or “Argent Fin”, an unspecified standard of fineness.

It was permissible in Switzerland to use base metal for the cuvette, the inner cover that protected the movement while a key was being used to wind it. This was often made of brass and silver plated. These are often marked “Cuivre” or “Metal”. This was not permitted for British made watches, the cuvette or “dome” had to be made of the same material as the rest of the case.

If it wasn’t, none of the case would be hallmarked by the British assay offices. At one time I thought that the Swiss sometimes made the bow, the ring on the pendant, out of plated brass, but now I think that if a watch has a bow like this it is a replacement for an original bow that wore through. Although the Swiss Precious Metals Control Act of defined standards for gold and silver watch cases, the British Merchandise Marks Act of caused several changes in Swiss hallmarking, in particular the two Swiss standards for silver were not accepted in Britain, and the British also inadvertently caused the Swiss to create their own national brand or trade mark “Swiss made”.


Tips and How-To’s So you need to figure out the year of production for your Fender guitar or bass. Fenders rank as the most frequently bought and sold instruments on Reverb, and finding a precise date of manufacture can be key to determining the value and specifics of an instrument. The most important thing to keep in mind when dating a Fender is the highly modular nature of the designs. Like Henry Ford, part of Leo Fender’s genius was in optimizing the company’s production efficiency.

His guitars were built en masse by an entire factory, not a single luthier toiling over one instrument at a time.

Finding & Interpreting Star Model Numbers. Model names are all too frequently a source of confusion for Star pistols. Especially for the older pistols, there are just a few tips you need to know to almost always find the correct model of your gun.

Help with ID and Value Posted: Mon Dec 20, 9: Thu Jun 12, 7: Charles Scott, his brother, was born in William Scott worked on the farm with his parents until he was 21 years old, but then obtained an apprenticeship as a gun finisher, probably with Benjamin Parker in Bury St Edmunds. Most people at this time started their apprenticeships at 14 so it seems that either William decided to change his career or his father needed his help on the farm and sought reimbursement for William’s upbringing and education!

Charles’s career probably followed the same course. In , when his apprenticeship finished, William married Mary Susan Middleditch born Bury St Edmunds and moved to Birmingham where he established himself as an outworker gun finisher at 11 Lench Street. They were only recorded in the street directories in There are reports that William Scott established his business or was working in at 79 Weaman Street, but these are obviously not correct as William would have been only 14 years old at the time; the William Scott of 79 Weaman Street was a different person.

In they had another son, James Charles Scott. In the firm moved to 33 Lench Street, and they took additional premises in 21 Loveday Street.

Collector’s Corner: ‘Dating’ Your Yard Sale Finds

Each of the pictured bottles has a relatively short description and explanation including estimated dates or date ranges for that type bottle and links to other view pictures of the bottle. Additional links to images of similar bottles are also frequently included. The array of references used to support the conclusions and estimates found here – including the listed dating ranges – are noted. Additional information and estimates are based on the empirical observations of the author over 50 years of experience; this is often but not always noted.

rows · Some numbers within a series may be unused. Therefore, the number of patents granted during a year cannot be determined by simply subtracting the number of the first patent issued in one year from the number of the first patent issued in the next year.

The side of the bottle may be printed with the product or manufacturer’s name, and this can be helpful in identifying your find. Also turn the bottle over. Many bottles have marks on the bottom, and these are important signatures of bottle manufacturers. If the mark isn’t obvious on the bottom of the bottle, feel for it with your finger. This bottle has a maker’s mark. If you’re unable to read it, try placing a piece of white paper on the bottle and lightly rubbing over the mark with a piece of charcoal or a crayon.


Note 37 CFR 1. However, matter canceled from the application file wrapper of a U. This is always true in the case of a reissue application and reexamination proceeding.

Determining approximate production date is possible if date codes are recorded from sub assemblies.. The chassis or radio set could only be completed after the latest date coded part had been assembled (unless that part has been swapped from another set, then all bets are off).

You pick it up. On the box is the company address: Acme Widgets, Chicago 5, Illinois. How old is it? Well, if you happened to know that the Zip Code was not introduced until July 1, though not mandatory for bulk mailers until , you would be able to tell from the postal area code the number 5 that your new widget was over thirty years old. Later, at an estate sale, you find several porcelain knickknacks variously marked “Made in Occupied Japan,” “Made in Nippon,” “Japan,” and “Made in Japan.

If you had previously perused Kovels’ New Dictionary of Marks http: And if you had visited AntiquesResources. You would also have learned that Japan marked their wares “Made in Nippon” until when the law was changed again to require that names be in English. And how about patent dates? They’re great for pinpointing the earliest date an item could have been produced.

Found on everything from tools to jewelry, they identify the year the object was first protected. For lists of patent numbers and dates of issue, try the following sites:

4 Ways to Write the Date in French

Contact The History of the Folding Bike There have been many who have laid claim to the invention of the folding bike. Humorously, a bike manufacturer who shall remain nameless so as to not unduly embarrass them audaciously claims on their website to have produced the world’s first folding bike in Wishful thinking by their marketing department I suppose.

Dating a slide rule becomes difficult if a manufacturer did not imprinting a date code or serial number on the stock. Even then, some manufacturers recycled their serial numbers over time, and the stock could have been left on a shelf for a period of time before the slide rule was assembled and shipped. There are numerous examples of

Gillette Date Codes “How old is this razor? Sometimes patent dates are a help, but they give you the front end of the date scale, and not always too exactly. Some razor makers put serial numbers on their razors, but we don’t always have the key to how the serial numbers fit to dates of manufacture. Gillette is one manufacturer for whom we have information on serial numbers and later date of manufacture codes that we can link to time.

Other makers included serial or manufacturing codes, but we do not have the keys. AutoStrop and Rolls are two well known manufacturers who serial numbered their razors. If you have the key to another manufacturer’s codes, please share this information with other collectors. This corresponds to the time King Gillette was directly associated with the business, and may have been at his insistence. These serial numbers were on the top of the guard, or sometimes the inner barrel.

There were no razor serial numbers from until Gillette Date Codes were used from January until They are found in the top left and right corners on the underside of razor guards, both 3 peice and 1 piece models. The letter represents the year, found on the chart below, and the number correspond with the quarter of the year. The blade system adopted in is still in use today, and was used on razors as well after

Cornell Publications

We are not responsible for links to external sites Pattern Dates Identifying and dating Maling isn’t as easy as it could be. For the first 50 years or so, pieces carry no mark, so identification is a matter of conjecture. Pieces begin to carry a ‘Maling’ mark from around , when the factory moved to Newcastle, but there are still no pattern numbers and only occasionally a pattern name.

Usually embossed on the base, marks may also appear on the lower heel area on certain types of bottles, especially sodas. On earlier flasks, fruit jars, and soda bottles, and especially examples produced in the mid-nineteenth century period (ss), the full factory name or .

Thanks to the “date letter” any piece of British sterling silver can be exactly dated. Old Sheffield Plate and Electroplated silver are not subject to this practice and the regulation issued by the authorities had the main objective of preventing possible frauds by unscrupulous sellers of plated ware. The best-known initiative is the prohibition effective from c. Elkington was forced to change its mark in of stamping plated wares with the “crown”, to avoid misunderstanding with the symbol identifying the Sheffield Assay Office.

The absence of an official dating system makes it difficult to date silver plated wares. An approximate date can be determined by examining: Elkington deleted the “crown” from its mark in In this case, being known the date letters of Elkington, we can date exactly the two marks. That in the left with the crown is That on the right without the crown is The “LD” indicates that the piece was made after that date.

The “LTD” indicates that the piece was made after that date. In this case the date is July 26,

Spode History: Dating Your Spode Pieces

John Dwight John Dwight established a factory at Fulham in and tests from excavated shards found at the site revealed a glassy type of porcelaneous material. However, it seems firing and glazing difficulties prevented full commercial production. Some shards were excavated in and some glassy type of under glaze blue items have been reconstructed but no pieces are known outside of these museum pieces.

Chelsea and Chelsea-Derby … read more The Chelsea factory was started in the town of that name by Nicholas Sprimont who, up until then, had been one of the Huguenot silversmiths in London.

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History[ edit ] The company was originally called Min-X. Vonage went public on May 24, Vonage planned to get better terms by paying down debt ahead of schedule, and by achieving sustained financial performance. However, the existing customers who lost money filed a class-action lawsuit. All shareholder claims against Vonage and its individual directors and officers who were named as defendants were dismissed. In , Vonage launched a viral marketing campaign and website freetocompete.

Subsequent to this jury award, there were a series of appeals and intermediate stays on payment. Vonage was punitively ordered by the court to stop signing up new customers; [44] this was reversed on appeal three weeks later.

Swiss hallmarks and other marks found in watch cases

Don’t worry — your e-mail address is totally secure. I promise to use it only to send you Clock Collecting Tips. There are so many styles and types of clocks, made by so many clock makers and from so many countries, that I was totally lost. Over many years, I have learned a lot. I have concentrated on the American clock companies for my collection, so there is much for me to learn about clocks from outside the US. The question I get most from the comment form on this web site is:

United States Patent Dates and Numbers The United States Patent Office started issuing patent numbers in An amazing variety of 19th and 20th century American antiques, jewelry and collectibles are marked with the patent number identifying the year that the object was patented.

Proof Marks — dating your gun Why have proof laws? Proof marks from a pin-fire showing marks; the first time the bore was stamped at proof. This gun shows proof marks only used between and Proof marks will sometimes be found on the tubes like this, but more commonly on the flats. These marks show proof marks. Birmingham nitro proof under rules.

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